The Gangnam district government in the City of Seoul, South Korea, faced a challenge all too familiar to urban governments around the world: growing parking demand and a corresponding shortage of parking spaces. As the gap between parking service demand and parking space supply increased, the Department of Parking Management (DPM) in the Gangnam district government dealt with an increasing number of illegally parked vehicles in residential and commercial areas as well as on public streets. Illegally parked vehicles generated not only terrible traffic, but also complaints from different citizen groups, such as drivers who received parking tickets and residents and business owners who could not use their assigned parking spaces when needed. Facing these citizens’ complaints about illegal parking, Mr. Joo, head of the DPM, adopted new digital technologies (e.g. online parking payment systems, GIS/GPS-equipped parking enforcement vehicles) to provide timely and effective responses to such complaints. The DPM’s adoption of new digital technologies, however, created other challenges. Once the new technologies came online, Mr. Joo and his team struggled to balance improving the performance of new technology-enabled parking services with promoting citizen end users’ participation in the development of online parking services and managing resistance from parking employees concerned about the potential use of the new digital technologies to directly monitor their work.
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